A Chapter 13 bankruptcy, a type of bankruptcy, is also called a wage earner’s plan.
It enables individuals with regular income to develop a plan to repay all or part of their debts. Under this Chapter, debtors propose a repayment plan to make installments to creditors over three to five years.
Length of Repayment for a Chapter 13 Bankruptcy in Texas
If the debtor’s current monthly income is less than the applicable state median, the plan will be for three years unless the court approves a longer period “for cause.” If the debtor’s current monthly income is greater than the applicable state median, the plan generally must be for five years.
In no case may a plan provide for payments over a period longer than five years. During this time the law forbids creditors from starting or continuing collection efforts.
Why Choose Chapter 13 Bankruptcy Instead of Chapter 7
A Chapter 13 bankruptcy in Texas offers individuals a number of advantages over liquidation under Chapter 7.
Perhaps most significantly, Chapter 13 offers individuals an opportunity to save their homes from foreclosure. By filing under this Chapter, individuals can stop foreclosure proceedings and may cure delinquent mortgage payments over time.
Nevertheless, they must still make all mortgage payments that come due during the Chapter 13 plan on time. However, for some individuals, choosing a Chapter 13 to save a home may not be the best option.
Another advantage is that it allows individuals to reschedule secured debts (other than a mortgage) and extend them over the life of the Chapter 13 plan.
Doing this may lower the payments. Chapter 13 also has a special provision that protects third parties who are liable with the debtor on “consumer debts.” This provision may protect co-signers.
Finally, Chapter 13 acts like a consolidation loan. The individual makes the plan payments to a Chapter 13 trustee who then distributes payments to creditors. Individuals will have no direct contact with creditors while under Chapter 13 protection.
Who Is Eligible for Chapter 13 Bankruptcy?
Any individual, even if self-employed or operating an unincorporated business, is eligible for Chapter 13 relief as long as the individual’s unsecured debts are less than $360,475 and secured debts are less than $1,081,400. These amounts are adjusted periodically to reflect changes in the consumer price index.
A corporation or partnership may not be a Chapter 13 debtor. An individual cannot file under Chapter 13 or any other Chapter if, during the preceding 180 days, a prior bankruptcy petition was dismissed due to the debtor’s willful failure to appear before the court or comply with orders of the court or was voluntarily dismissed after creditors sought relief from the bankruptcy court to recover property upon which they hold liens.
In addition, no individual may be a debtor under Chapter 13 or any Chapter of the Bankruptcy Code unless he or she has, within 180 days before filing, received credit counseling from an approved credit counseling agency either in an individual or group briefing.
How Do I Begin to File for Chapter 13 Bankruptcy?
A Chapter 13 case begins by filing a petition with the bankruptcy court serving the area where the debtor has a domicile or residence. Your attorney will assist you in preparing all the necessary documents to file with your case.
Some of the information that must be disclosed is:
- A list of all creditors and the amounts and nature of their claims;
- The source, amount, and frequency of the debtor’s income;
- A list of all of the debtor’s property; and
- A detailed list of the debtor’s monthly living expenses, i.e., food, clothing, shelter, utilities, taxes, transportation, medicine, etc.
Married individuals must gather this information for their spouse. This is regardless of whether they are filing joint or separate petitions, or even if only one spouse is filing. In a situation where only one spouse files, the income and expenses of the non-filing spouse is required so that the court, the trustee, and the creditors can evaluate the household’s financial position.
When an individual files a Chapter 13 petition, an impartial trustee is appointed to administer the case. In some districts, the U.S. trustee or bankruptcy administrator appoints a standing trustee to serve in all Chapter 13 cases. The Chapter 13 trustee both evaluates the case and serves as a disbursing agent, collecting payments from the debtor and making distributions to creditors.
Can Creditors Still Collect From Me?
Filing the petition under Chapter 13 “automatically stays” (stops) most collection actions against the debtor or the debtor’s property. Filing the petition does not, however, stay certain types of actions and the stay may be effective only for a short time in some situations. The stay arises by operation of law and requires no judicial action.
As long as the stay is in effect, creditors generally may not initiate or continue lawsuits, wage garnishments, or even make telephone calls demanding payments. The bankruptcy clerk gives notice of the bankruptcy case to all creditors whose names and addresses are provided by the debtor.
Do You Have More Questions About Chapter 13 Bankruptcy in Texas?
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